什么是定语从句(定语有哪些类型)

第五节:什么是定语?定语有哪些类型?

简单句第五节:什么是定语?定语有哪些类型?

【知识点】

11. 什么是定语

(1). The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals.

(解析:观察一下,哪些单词、短语、从句是用来描述名词house的?它们的作用是不是来描述house的大小、高矮、新旧、用途等细节的?)

(2) Last winter when I went there again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken.

(思考:观察一下,哪些单词、短语、从句是用来描述名词house的?体会一下它们的作用是什么?)

(3) They also had a small pond which they raised fish.

(思考:观察一下,哪些单词、短语、从句是用来描述名词pond的?)

【概念】什么是定语?

定语就是围绕在中心名词前后,用来描述说明这个中心名词细节情况的单词、短语、从句等成分。例如

China is a great country in Asia which has a history of more than five thousand years.

(解析:中心名词country前有冠词a, 形容词great, 后面有短语in Asia, 从句which has a history of more than five thousand years. 这些都是用来说明描述中心名词的细节情况的:包括数量、地位、位置和历史等,在语法上都是定语)

12. 定语的位置:是放在中心名词前还是放在中心名词后?

【规律】一般说来,单个单词做定语一般放在中心名词前,称为前置定语,如a何great;短语和从句做定语一般放在中心名词后,称为后置定语,如in Asia和which has a history of more than five thousand years。

13. 定语有哪些类型?

13.1. 形容词做定语

I saw a interested film directed by Jack Chen last weekend.

(解析:形容词interested做定语修饰film, 应改为interesting, 全句应改为:I saw an interesting film directed by Jack Chen last weekend.)

13.2. 名词做定语

(1) The bicycles shop is just around the corner and you won’t miss it.

(解析:自行车店,名词bicycle做定语修饰shop,在英语语法中,一般情况下,名词主要用其单数形式做定语,表示材料、类别、用途等,故应改为:The bicycle shop is just around the corner and you won’t miss it.)

(2) You can often see ladies drivers in our town.

(解析:同上,应改为:You can often see lady drivers in our town.)

(3) There are only two woman assistants in that glass shop.

(解析:这是例外情况,有些名词需要用其复数形式做定语,如:A glasses store“眼镜店“,A sales manager,women doctors等,故应改为:here are only two women assistants in that glasses shop.)

13.3 冠词数词等限定词做定语

【知识点】

 

简单句第五节:什么是定语?定语有哪些类型?

 

 

(1) As a consequence, they can devote a plenty of time to studying

(解析:没有a plenty of, 应该是plenty of 做time的定语,故全句改为:As a consequence, they can devote plenty of time to studying.)

(2) It might be commercial trick played by the organizer.

(解析:中心名词trick“计谋,计策”是个可数名词,单数名词前应加冠词a, 故全句改为:It might be a commercial trick played by the organizer.)

(3) This picture often brings back to me many happy memories of your high school days.

(解析:根据前后一致的逻辑,定语your应改为my, 全句应改为:This picture often brings back to me many happy memories of my high school days.)

13.4 介词短语做定语

(1) My uncle is the owner in a restaurant close to that I live.

(解析:中心名词owner后面有一个介词短语做后置定语,in应改为of“的”表所有关系, 同时that应改为where, 相当于the place where或者the place in which, 故全句改为:My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to where I live.)

(2) I would be glad when you could offer to me an opportunity for an interview.

(解析:介词短语做后置定语修饰opportunity, 意思为面试的机会,根据逻辑关系,when改为if“是否”, 全句改为:I would be glad if you could offer to me an opportunity for an interview.)

(3) At the first day of my high school, Miss Li, my English teacher, asked us to introduce us in English.

(解析:介词短语of my high school做后置定语,具体的一天用介词on, 根据逻辑关系,后一个us改为ourselves, 全句改为:On the first day of my high school, Miss Li, my English teacher, asked us to introduce ourselves in English.)

13.5 非谓语动词做定语

I am writing tell you more about the newly form of bike-sharing mentioning in your latest letter.

(解析:简单句结构中只能有一个谓语动词am writing, 其他动词用非谓语结构,tell逻辑主语是I,逻辑主语和动词之间是主动关系,故改为to tell, 第二个动词mention的逻辑主语是the new form of bike-sharing, 主语和动词之间是被动关系,故改为mentioned, 另外副词newly不能做定语,全句改为:I am writing to tell you more about the new form of bike-sharing mentioned in your latest letter.)

13.6 从句做定语

(1) In our spare time, they are interested in planting vegetables in their garden, that is on the rooftop of their house.

(解析:从句做后置定语修饰中心名词garden,根据逗号判断为非限制性定语从句,连接词不能用that, 另外根据前后一致原则,our应改为their, 故全句改为:In their spare time, they are interested in planting vegetables in their garden, which is on the rooftop of their house.)

(2) Around me in picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.

(解析:picture表特指,改为in the picture, 两个主谓结构说明是复合句,需要连接词,故they改为which, 全句改为:Around me in the picture are the things which were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.)

【练一练】

简单句第五节:什么是定语?定语有哪些类型?